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      2. 首頁 > 非遺概要 > 非遺入門

        非遺知識

        發布時間:2016/7/15 14:17:34

        非物質文化遺產保護知識問答

          Q:什么是非物質文化遺產?

          A:根據《中華人民共和國非物質文化遺產法》的規定,非物質文化遺產是指各族人民世代相傳并視為其文化遺產組成部分的各種傳統文化表現形式,以及與傳統文化表現形式相關的實物和場所。包括:1、傳統口頭文學以及作為其載體的語言;2、傳統美術、書法、音樂、舞蹈、戲劇、曲藝和雜技;3、傳統技藝、醫藥和歷法;4、傳統禮儀、節慶等民俗;5、傳統體育和游藝;6、其他非物質文化遺產。


          Q:非物質文化遺產的特點什么?

          A:非物質文化遺產又稱無形文化遺產,有別于物質文化遺產,其最大的特點就是“活態流變”,強調的是以人為核心的技藝、經驗、精神,是以人為本的活態文化遺產,它依托于人而存在,以聲音、形象和技藝為表現形式,并多以身口相傳作為文化鏈而得以延續,因此對于非物質文化遺產傳承的過程來說,傳承人顯得尤為重要。


          Q:如何看待非物質文化遺產與物質文化遺產的關系?

          A:首先,物質文化遺產與非物質文化遺產有著本質的區別,主要表現在:

          1、有形與無形的差別:物質文化遺產的文化內涵都寓于物之中,物是物質文化遺產的的唯一表現形式,非物質文化則不同,雖然它也會借助物質載體,但其核心是物質之外的比如技藝、經驗和智慧,還有一些非物質文化遺產并沒有物質形態,它們存在于人們口頭傳說和表述中,存在于不同的藝術扮演之中,存在于各種民俗、節慶、禮儀之中;

          2、固態與活態的差別:物質文化遺產是歷史的化石,是不能再生的,不可再生性是物質文化遺產的一個特征。但非物質文化遺產恰恰相反,盡管它也傳承自悠久的歷史時代,但只要傳承它的人還活著,它就可以再生,并且它也只有生活中存續才能顯示它的價值,因而非物質文化遺產也被稱為“活的文化化石”;

          3、維護方式的差別:鑒于文字文化遺產的不可再生性,所以無論是歷史建筑,還是傳世古玩,維護重點都是施行固態維護,主要是對其損壞的修復和現狀的維護。而非物質文化遺產的保護,注重主要是傳承性(特別是技藝、技術和學問的傳承),突出了人的要素、人的創造性和人的主體位置。

          其次,物質文化遺產與非物質文化遺產也有緊密的內在聯絡,不能分割。每一種物質文化遺產都會折射出一定時期人類的生活方式、生產方式等等,而非物質文化遺產往往也要借助于一定的物質方式來表現,比如制作瓷器的技藝,總會體現在一個精美的瓷瓶上。


          Q:我國哪年開始啟動非物質文化遺產保護工作?

          A: 2003年10月17日在聯合國教科文組織第32屆大會順利通過了《保護非物質文化遺產公約》,這是人類歷史上非物質文化遺產保護事業的重要里程碑。我國于2004年8月加入了《保護非物質文化遺產公約》,成為第6個加入《保護非物質文化遺產公約》的國家。目前,已有97個國家加入了《保護非物質文化遺產公約》。

          2005年3月26日,國務院辦公廳以國辦發〔2005〕18號印發《關于加強我國非物質文化遺產保護工作的意見》,全面啟動了非物質文化遺產保護工作。


          Q:我國非物質文化遺產保護工作的總體目標是什么?

          A:根據2005年國務院辦公廳以國辦發〔2005〕18號印發《關于加強我國非物質文化遺產保護工作的意見》,我國非物質文化遺產保護工作的總體目標是:通過全社會的努力,逐步建立起比較完備的、有中國特色的非物質文化遺產保護制度,使我國珍貴、瀕危并具有歷史、文化和科學價值的非物質文化遺產得到有效保護,并得以傳承和發揚。


          Q:“文化和自然遺產日”是怎么來的?

          A:2005年12月,國務院在《關于加強文化遺產保護的通知》(國發〔2005〕42號)中確定:從2006年開始,每年6月的第二個星期六為中國文化遺產日。

          2016年9月,國務院《關于同意設立“文化和自然遺產日”的批復》(國函〔2016〕162號)中又確定,自2017年起,將每年6月第二個星期六的“文化遺產日”,調整設立為“文化和自然遺產日”。

          通過舉辦“文化和自然遺產日”活動,一是切實喚起全社會文化遺產保護的意識,建立并完善國家保護為主、全社會共同參與的新機制;二是推動各級政府切實改善和加強文化遺產保護和傳承工作。


          Q:中國列入人類非物質文化遺產名錄的項目有哪些?

          A:我國目前是全世界聯合國教科文組織人類非物質文化遺產相關項目最多的國家。共有列入人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄的項目31項,包括:昆曲、古琴藝術、新疆維吾爾木卡姆藝術、蒙古族長調民歌(中國、蒙古跨國項目)、中國雕版印刷技藝、漢字書法、中國剪紙、中國傳統木結構建筑營造技藝、中國朝鮮族農樂舞、格薩(斯)爾、侗族大歌、花兒、瑪納斯、蒙古族呼麥、南音、熱貢藝術、中國蠶桑絲織、端午節、媽祖信俗、金石篆刻、南京云錦織造技藝、龍泉青瓷燒制技藝、宣紙制作技藝、藏戲、西安鼓樂、粵劇、中醫針灸、京劇、中國皮影戲、珠算、二十四節氣。列入急需保護的非物質文化遺產名錄的項目共7項,包括:羌年、黎族傳統紡染織繡技藝、中國木拱橋傳統營造技藝、新疆維吾爾族麥西熱甫、中國木活字印刷技術、中國水密隔艙福船制造技藝、赫哲族伊瑪堪。列入優秀實踐名冊的項目共1項,為福建木偶戲后繼人才培養計劃。

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