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      2. 首頁 > 非遺概要 > 政策法規

        聯合國教科文組織:《保護非物質文化遺產倫理原則》

          《保護非物質文化遺產倫理原則》遵循2003年《保護非物質文化遺產公約》和現有的保護人權和原住民權利國際標準文書的精神而制定。這些原則代表一套鼓勵性的總體原則,對政府、組織和個人可形成直接或間接影響非物質文化遺產的優秀實踐,以確保非物質文化遺產的存續力,并由此確認非物質文化遺產對促進和平和可持續發展的貢獻,因而獲得廣泛接受。作為2003年《保護非物質文化遺產公約》、《實施〈公約〉操作指南》和國家立法框架的補充,這些倫理原則可作為制定適用于地方和部門條件的具體道德準則和工具的基礎。

          一、相關社區、群體和個人在保護其所持有的非物質文化遺產過程中應發揮主要作用。

          二、社區、群體和個人繼續其各種實踐、觀念表述、表現形式、知識和技能以確保非物質文化遺產存續力之權利應得到承認和尊重。

          三、相互尊重以及對非物質文化遺產的尊重和相互欣賞,應在締約國之間,社區、群體和個人之間的互動中蔚成風氣。

          四、與創造、保護、延續和傳承非物質文化遺產的社區、群體和個人的所有互動應以透明的合作、對話、協商和咨詢為特征,并取決于尊重其意愿、使其事先、持續知情并同意的前提而定。

          五、應確保社區、群體和個人有權使用表現非物質文化遺產所需而存在的器具、實物、手工藝品、文化和自然空間以及紀念地,包括在武裝沖突的情況下。接觸非物質文化遺產的習慣做法應受到充分尊重,即使這些習慣做法可能會限制更廣泛的公眾接觸。

          六、每一社區、群體或個人應評定其所持有的非物質文化遺產的價值,而這種遺產不應受制于外部的價值或意義評判。

          七、創造非物質文化遺產的社區、群體或個人應從源于這類遺產的精神利益和物質利益的保護中受益,特別是社區成員或其他人對其使用、研究、立檔、宣傳或改編。

          八、非物質文化遺產的動態性和活態性應始終受到尊重。本真性和排外性不應構成保護非物質文化遺產的問題和障礙。

          九、社區、群體及地方的、國家的和跨國的組織,還有個人,對可能影響到非物質文化遺產的存續力或實踐該遺產的社區的任何行動的直接和間接、短期和長期、潛在和明顯的影響都應仔細評估。

          十、社區、群體和個人在確定對其非物質文化遺產構成的威脅,包括對非物質文化遺產的去語境化、商品化及歪曲,并決定怎樣防止和減緩這樣的威脅時應發揮重要作用。

          十一、文化多樣性及社區、群體和個人的認同應得到充分尊重。尊重社區、群體和個人的價值認定和文化規范的敏感性,對性別平等、年輕人參與給予特別關注,尊重民族認同,皆應涵括在保護措施的制訂和實施中。

          十二、保護非物質文化遺產是人類的共同利益,因而應通過雙邊、次區域、區域和國際層面的各方之間的合作而開展;然而,絕不應使社區、群體和個人疏離其自身的非物質文化遺產。

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