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      2. 首頁 > 有聲有色 > 網上展廳 > 爐火純青——單大禹·傳統銅香爐鑄造技藝精品展

        “爐火純青——單大禹·傳統銅香爐鑄造技藝精品展”

        發布時間:2019/1/10 13:54:45

          銅香爐的器形鑄造一般使用失蠟法,其表面氧化處理,則是為了保護銅器不被腐蝕,同時增添光彩和美感。如今,上海的傳統銅香爐鑄造技藝傳承人對銅香爐的表面氧化技術進行了創新發展與發揚光大,不但復原了僅見于史料記載或存世文物上的幾種色彩,還另辟蹊徑,實現了許多技術突破,使得銅器表面呈現出更多不同的氧化色,使銅香爐寶色內涵,珠光外現,妙不可言。

          本次展覽將展示與介紹銅香爐藝術的歷史發展、制作技藝以及藝術特點與內涵,并重點展示傳統銅香爐鑄造名家單大禹先生共計近60件精品佳作及衍生品。為銅香爐愛好者及市民,提供一個近距離了解銅香爐藝術魅力的平臺。

          

          香爐的歷史由來已久,早在漢代就出現了陶、瓷、鐵為材料制成的香爐。因為通常人們為了禮儀將衣服薰香,而文人雅士更喜歡在書房內,焚上一柱香,營造氛圍與意境。漢代著名的“博山爐”就是人們為熏香而設計的。元末明初隨著銅器鑄造業的迅速發展,原先其它材料的香爐,逐漸被銅香爐所取代,明代宣德年間則是銅香爐制作的巔峰時期。

          如何鑒賞銅香爐  傳統銅香爐鑄造  傳承人介紹及作品

          

        博山爐

          明代宣德皇帝在位時,為滿足玩賞香爐的嗜好,責成宮廷御匠參照皇府內藏的定、汝、官、哥、均等名窯瓷器的款式,以及《宣和博古圖錄》、《考古圖》等史籍,設計和監制香爐。為保證香爐的質量,工藝師挑選了金、銀等幾十種貴重金屬,與紅銅一起經過十多次的精心鑄煉。成品后的銅香爐色澤晶瑩而溫潤,底書“大明宣德年制”楷書款。爐身形制規整,敦厚之中不失靈巧精致。

          

        宣德爐底款

          宣德爐精妙之處在色,史料記載有四十多種。例如,紫帶青黑似茄皮的,叫茄皮色;黑黃象藏經紙的,叫藏經色;黑白帶紅淡黃色的,叫褐色;如舊玉之土沁色的,叫土古色;白黃帶紅似棠梨之色的,叫棠梨色,還有黃紅色的地、套上五彩斑點的,叫仿宋燒斑色;比珠砂還鮮紅的斑,叫朱紅斑;以及豬肝色、棗紅色、琥珀色、茶葉末、蟹殼青等。

          



        宣德爐

          大明宣德爐的基本形制是敞口、方唇或圓唇,頸矮而細,扁鼓腹,三鈍錐形實足或分襠空足,口沿上置橋形耳或了形耳或獸形耳,銘文年款多于爐外底。

          宣德爐的鑄造成功,開創了后世銅香爐的先河,在很長一段時期,宣德爐成為了銅香爐的通稱。

          宣德爐出現后,歷代各種仿制不絕,銅香爐的鑄造技藝也各有不同。民國時期,民間復制青銅器形成“蘇州造”、“濰坊造”、“西安造”和“北京造”這民間“青銅四派”,其方法各異。現今銅香爐鑄造技藝傳播最廣泛的還屬清末“歪嘴于”傳下的“北京造”一脈,主要傳承在京津冀和上海、四川等地區。

          

        宣德爐

          如何鑒賞銅香爐

          明代制作銅香爐的工匠,經過反復的設計和制鑄,爐耳的外觀已經近似完美,比例得體,粗細勻稱,形態別致。現代的仿造者往往由于爐耳安置的稍稍偏差,而給人一種不舒適的感覺,看似很簡單的沖耳,常常在與爐體相接之處,爐耳的粗細不均或是弧度計算失誤,造成作品鑄造的失敗。

          如今,人們更多會從形制、爐耳、爐足、爐口、爐色、爐飾、爐款等多角度來鑒賞銅香爐。而銅香爐的款式多達二十余種,優秀的銅香爐作品,形狀簡潔,會給人舒適、明快之感。

          傳統銅香爐鑄造

          傳統銅香爐鑄造過程十分復雜,基礎步驟有設計、制圖、造型、雕刻模具(蠟型)、包漿或制作沙型、精整打磨、氧化做色等工序,有的還需要錯金鑲銀、鎏金、敲金等工藝。

        鎏金、敲金后的銅香爐

          鑄造銅香爐,一般最常用的是砂型鑄造的方式。并會使用木模、銅模或者原樣一分為兩,進行造型鑄造。砂型鑄造可用泥沙、陶范、水玻璃砂、樹脂砂、多配方樹脂砂制作。首先把紅砂胚涂在磨具里層和外層,等牢固后撤掉木頭模具,再倒入銅水,即可完成。

          

        砂型鑄造

          失蠟鑄造又稱脫蠟法、熔模法、拔蠟法、出蠟法。現代的精密鑄造中稱為熔模精密鑄造。中國最早在春秋晚期就有以失蠟法鑄造的器物,例如:河南淅川下寺楚墓中的銅禁等。而最受人們稱道器物則是曾侯乙墓出土的“尊盤”,上面密布的蟠虺紋玲瓏剔透,窮極繁縟富麗,這就是失蠟法制成的。

          失蠟鑄造原理很簡單,但是青銅器很復雜,做模很困難。先要用蜂蠟一類的蟲蠟,雕一個鑄造銅器原蠟型。但由于蠟很軟,可塑性強,可以雕琢、焊接、整理、修正,等蠟型制作滿意后,再在蠟樣外面一遍遍涂細泥漿,等蠟樣被嚴實地包裹住了,這層厚厚的泥漿也就成為了外范。待整個外范晾干以后,便可將泥范烤火800度左右,再把蠟液通過注口傾瀉,隨著高溫銅液的注入,銅液則占據了蠟模的空間,冷卻之后去掉外范,與蠟模一模一樣青銅器就誕生了。

          

        失蠟法正在澆筑蠟液

          還有一種鑄造方式叫疊鑄法。所謂疊鑄法就是把多個范塊或成對的范片疊合裝配,由一個共用的澆道進行澆注。由于疊鑄法生產率高,成本比較低,可以節省造型、澆注面積,所以被廣泛應用。我國最早的疊鑄件是戰國時期的刀幣,就是用銅質范(母范)盒翻制出具有高度對稱性和互換性的范片(子范),每兩片合成一層,多層疊澆而成的。到了漢代,被廣泛用于錢幣、車馬器的生產。

          

        刀幣

          銅香爐的打磨工藝同樣十分復雜。明代宮廷鑄造的“宣德爐”都必須打磨過。而為了做到光潔透亮的效果,就要經過粗磨、清除表面黑沙、清理澆毛口、流道、范痕等多道工序。然后再細磨、精整、精磨。打磨是整個設計鑄造過程中最重要的環節。

          傳統銅香爐的制作還有一個重點就是做色。而做色有生坑、熟坑之分。所謂“生坑”是指銅器表面由于種種化學反應引起的質變,自然地、一層層地產生銹蝕,形成器表或綠、或紅、或藍、或紫的銹色。這種銹色堅實,有一種自然的多變感。

          

        銅香爐氧化后的顏色

          而“熟坑”又分自然氧化色與人為氧化色。自然氧化色即為銅綠色,即堿式碳酸銅的綠色。而人為氧化色是指通過一系列化學反應,定向制作出銅爐的表面色彩。銅器氧化色可以熱加工、冷加工,在制作過程中必須了解銅器本身材質,再配方制作不同的氧化處理,進行熱氧化色或者冷氧化色。熱氧化色,是指把所需要的化學配方加水在不銹鋼桶或者陶瓷缸木桶等容器中加溫。溫度是根據需要加熱,適當溫度到達就可以放入工件,定時取出。

          

        熟坑氧化后的銅香爐

          銅香爐的氧化處理其實是保護銅器不再被腐蝕,同時增添光彩和美感的一種加工技藝。因為氧化是特殊技術,材質、配方、溫度都是其中關鍵,不同的材質在一樣的配方中可以產生各種色彩。中國歷史上銅制品的表面氧化技藝在明代已經發展得十分成熟,宣德爐就全部都經過氧化做色,而且有多種氧化色,例如:紫色、玫瑰色、雨雪金等等,光潔鮮亮,令人愛不釋手。

          

        宣德爐

          傳承人介紹

          單大禹,1955年生,現為傳統銅香爐鑄造技藝代表性傳承人。他師從上海博物館青銅器修復專家顧友楚先生,并在其精心指導與傳授下,經過二十余年的刻苦學習,從收藏香爐、修復香爐轉而潛心于銅香爐鑄造制作與研究,同時積累了相當豐富的經驗。

          

        傳統銅香爐鑄造技藝代表性傳承人單大禹

          近年來,單大禹尤其在銅香爐鑄造的創意、設計、造型、作色等方面,有了更深的思考。故而,多年來他制作出了許多形制優雅、做工精美、色澤豐富、器型多樣的銅香爐作品,并受到了國內眾多銅香爐愛好者的喜愛。

          

        單大禹作品《戈耳爐》

          單大禹先生此次帶來了近60件作品,都是其近年來所創作的精品。這些作品不僅反映了他對傳統銅香爐鑄造技藝嚴謹的藝術理念與態度。更重要的是其作品五彩斑斕的氧化著色、典雅富貴的灑金鎏金、造型迥異的器型設計,都是當今銅香爐藝術中難能可貴的亮點。

          單大禹作品

          

        《琴爐》

          

        《朝冠鼎式爐》

          

        銅筆架

          

        銅茶爐

          

        銅鑄茶葉罐

          

        銅鑄假山

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